How Three Million Germans Died After the End of World War II

How three million Germans died after VE Day

Last Updated: 12:01am BST 18/04/2007


Nigel Jones reviews After the Reich: From the Liberation of Vienna to the Berlin Airlift by Giles MacDonogh

Giles MacDonogh is a bon viveur and a historian of wine and gastronomy, but in this book, pursuing his other consuming interest - German history - he serves a dish to turn the strongest of stomachs. It makes particularly uncomfortable reading for those who compare the disastrous occupation of Iraq unfavourably to the post-war settlement of Germany and Austria.

MacDonogh argues that the months that followed May 1945 brought no peace to the shattered skeleton of Hitler's Reich, but suffering even worse than the destruction wrought by the war. After the atrocities that the Nazis had visited on Europe, some degree of justified vengeance by their victims was inevitable, but the appalling bestialities that MacDonogh documents so soberly went far beyond that. The first 200 pages of his brave book are an almost unbearable chronicle of human suffering.

His best estimate is that some three million Germans died unnecessarily after the official end of hostilities. A million soldiers vanished before they could creep back to the holes that had been their homes. The majority of them died in Soviet captivity (of the 90,000 who surrendered at Stalingrad, only 5,000 eventually came home) but, shamingly, many thousands perished as prisoners of the Anglo-Americans. Herded into cages along the Rhine, with no shelter and very little food, they dropped like flies. Others, more fortunate, toiled as slave labour in a score of Allied countries, often for years. Incredibly, some Germans were still being held in Russia as late as 1979.

The two million German civilians who died were largely the old, women and children: victims of disease, cold, hunger, suicide - and mass murder.

Apart from the well-known repeated rape of virtually every girl and woman unlucky enough to be in the Soviet occupation zones, perhaps the most shocking outrage recorded by MacDonogh - for the first time in English - is the slaughter of a quarter of a million Sudeten Germans by their vengeful Czech compatriots. The survivors of this ethnic cleansing, naked and shivering, were pitched across the border, never to return to their homes. Similar scenes were seen across Poland, Silesia and East Prussia as age-old German communities were brutally expunged.

Given that what amounted to a lesser Holocaust was unfolding under their noses, it may be asked why the western Allies did not stop this venting of long-dammed-up rage on the (mainly) innocent. MacDonogh's answer is that it could all have been even worse. The US Treasury Secretary, Henry Morgenthau, favoured turning Germany into a gigantic farm, and there were genocidal Nazi-like schemes afoot to starve, sterilise or deport the population of what was left of the bombed-out cities.

The discovery of the Nazi death camps stoked Allied fury, with General George Patton asking an aide amid the horrors of Buchenwald: 'Do you still find it hard to hate them?' But the surviving inmates were soon replaced by German captives - Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen and even Auschwitz stayed in business after the war, only now with the Germans behind the wire.

It was Realpolitik, not humanitarian concern, that caused a swift shift in western attitudes towards their former foes. Fear of Communism spreading into the heart of Europe, and the barbarities of the Russians - who kidnapped and killed hundreds of their perceived enemies from the western zones of Berlin and Vienna - belatedly made the West realise that they had beaten one totalitarian power only to be threatened by another.

Even that hardline Kraut-hater Patton was sacked for advocating a pre-emptive strike against Russia. Building up West Germany and saving Berlin from Soviet strangulation with the 1948 airlift became the first battles of the Cold War - even if that meant overlooking Nazi crimes and enlisting Nazi criminals in the 'economic miracle' of reconstruction.

Although MacDonogh roundly condemns all the occupying powers, the British emerge with some credit. Apart from one Air Marshal who looted art treasures; and an MI5 interrogator nicknamed 'Tin Eye' Stephens who ran a private torture chamber, British hands may have been grubby, but were not deeply blood-stained. British squaddies preferred to purchase their sex privately with a packet of fags or a pair of nylons, rather than in the Soviet style.

MacDonogh has written a gruelling but important book. This unhappy story has long been cloaked in silence since telling it suited no one. Not the Allies, because it placed them near the moral nadir of the Nazis; nor the Germans, because they did not wish to be accused of whitewashing Hitler by highlighting what was, by any standard, a war crime. Giles MacDonogh has told a very inconvenient truth.

?ナイジェルジョーンズはライヒの後で概説します: ジャイルズMacDonoghによるベルリン空輸へのウィーンの解放から

この本以外、ジャイルズMacDonoghは享楽家とワインと美食の歴史家です。そして、彼の他の焼き尽くすほどの関心を追い続けます、 - ドイツの歴史 - 彼は、胃で最も強くなるために、料理を出します。それは、特に不利にイラクの壊滅的な占領をドイツとオーストリアの戦後の解決と比較する人々に読んで気持ち悪くなります。



死んだ200万人のドイツの一般人は、主に老人、女性と子供たちでした:病気、寒さ、飢え、自殺の犠牲者 - そして、大量殺人。

ソビエト占領地域にあるのに十分不運な実質的にあらゆる女の子と女性の有名な度重なる強姦は別として、おそらく、最も衝撃的な非道行為は、MacDonoghによって記録しました - 英語の最初のために - 25万人のズデーテン地方の人の虐殺は、彼らの復讐心に燃えたチェコの同胞のドイツ人です。この民族浄化を生き残った人は、裸で、震えて、境界の向こうに投げられました。そして、彼らの家に決して戻りませんでした。長年のドイツのコミュニティが情け容赦なく消し去られたので、類似した場面はポーランド、シレジアと東プロイセンの全域で見られました。


ブーヘンヴァルトの恐怖の中で側近に尋ねているジョージパットン将軍と、ナチ死の収容所の発見は、連合国の激怒をかき立てました:『あなたは、まだ彼らが嫌いであることが難しいとわかりますか?』しかし、生き残っている収容者は、ドイツの捕虜によってすぐに代理を務められました - ワイヤーの後のドイツ人と一緒のたった今、ダッハウ、ブーヘンヴァルト、Sachsenhausenとアウシュヴィッツさえ戦争の後、ビジネスにとどまりました。

それが彼らの元敵に対する西の態度の速い転換を引き起こしたことは、現実的政治(人道的な懸念でない)でした。ヨーロッパの中心に広がっている共産主義の恐れとロシア人の残虐 - 誰が、ベルリンとウィーンの西の地帯から、彼らの認められた敵の何百をさらって、殺しましたか - 遅ればせながら、西側を彼らがもう一つによって脅かされるだけの1つの全体主義力を打ったと理解させました。

その強硬なクラウト-嫌いパットンさえ、ロシアに対して先制攻撃を主唱することで首になりました。西ドイツを確立して、1948年の空輸でベルリンをソビエト絞殺から救うことは、冷戦の最初の闘争になりました - たとえそれがナチ犯罪を見のがして、ナチ犯人を再建の『経済奇跡』に入れることを意味したとしても。